5 Things To Know About Windows.
The English language-word window originates from the Old Norse ‘vindauga’, from ‘vindr – wind’ and ‘auga – eye’, i.e., wind eye. In Norwegian Nynorsk and Icelandic the Old Norse form has survived to this day (in Icelandic only as a less used word for a type of small open “window”, not strictly a synonym for gluggi, the Icelandic word for window), in Swedish the word vindöga remains as a term for a hole through the roof of a hut, and in the Danish language ‘vindue’ and Norwegian Bokmål ‘vindu’, the direct link to ‘eye’ is lost, just like for ‘window’. The Danish (but not the Bokmål) word is pronounced fairly similarly to window.
Window is first recorded in the early 13th century, and originally referred to an unglazed hole in a roof. Window replaced the Old English eagþyrl, which literally means ‘eye-hole,’ and ‘eagduru’ ‘eye-door’. Many Germanic languages however adopted the Latin word ‘fenestra’ to describe a window with glass, such as standard Swedish ‘fönster’, or German ‘Fenster’. The use of window in English is probably because of the Scandinavian influence on the English language by means of loanwords during the Viking Age. In English the word fenester was used as a parallel until the mid-18th century. Fenestration is still used to describe the arrangement of windows within a façade, as well as defenestration, meaning to throw something out of a window.
Frameless structural glass windows connecting around a corner are also possible to design using this same design method for frameless corner windows or to create a contemporary twist on the traditional bay window.
With no framings needed the size of these frameless windows can be designed to suit all types and scales of window openings with all manner of shapes easily constructed and installed. David Hockney designed the stained-glass window for Westminster Abbey’s north transept. “I hope a summary of our stained glass window theme and explanation helps everyone to better appreciate the art of our church, but more importantly, the faith it attempts to represent.
The stained glass windows in the Wellesley Hills Congregational Church. While struggling to design a 75-foot-tall window for the Cologne Cathedral, Richter accidentally placed a template of the Gothic window frame atop one of his color grid paintings. This technology, called a transparent luminescent solar concentrator, could see windows in a home or commercial building collecting energy to power the structure itself in a self-sustaining fashion, and possibly even harness energy for surrounding homes, offices or entire neighborhoods.
Smart glass uses this intelligence to predict weather changes, to track the sun’s movement, to determine the amount of light, and to automatically control the tint of individual windows, zones or facades. While cathedrals across Europe made use of stained glass for their windows, domestic windows were totally unglazed, with only wooden shutters to keep out the cold. The earliest windows were panes of glassy pebbles laid on a wooden frame — these would let some light through, but probably weren’t that transparent.
Low-E glass windows have a microscopically thin coating that is transparent and reflects heat. Experts estimate that 70 percent of energy loss occurs in windows and doors, and that 90 percent of window heat loss occurs through the glass. What is Low-E Glass & Does it Make Windows Energy Efficient?
The Franciscan Church, located in Poland, presents guests with stunning stained glass windows full of violets, roses, geraniums and geometric shapes. A dark, yet colorful glass-stained window at St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague, Czech Republic, portrays St. Wenceslas and his grandmother St. Lyudmila surrounded by other saints while they spread the message of Christianity. Antoni Gaudí created the playful stained glass windows in the Sagrada Familia Cathedral because he believed color was the expression of life.
The gorgeous stained glass windows depict the influence of naturalism within the cathedral. The past meets present on vibrant glass stained windows at the Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago, Illinois. From the Trinity United Church in Chicago to Notre Dame in Paris , we’ve rounded up some of the world’s most breathtaking stained glass windows.
More sophisticated windows (using low-e heat-reflective glass ) are coated with a thin layer of metallic chemicals so they keep your home warm in winter and cool in summer. It lets in light and heat even when you don’t want it to. On a blinding summer’s day, the more heat (“solar gain”) that enters your building the more you’ll need to use your air-conditioning —a horrible waste of energy that costs you money and harms the environment. Rolf Achilles is an Art Historian and Curator of the Smith Museum of Stained Glass Windows at Navy Pier, Chicago.
Poorly planned rehabilitation projects sometimes cause the unnecessary removal or alteration of overhead leaded glass in order to comply with fire codes or to achieve perceived energy savings; occasionally, they are even concealed above suspended ceilings. Some glass tinted the transmitted light intentionally, as originally designed: in this case any new or replacement plating should simulate this effect to respect the artisan’s intention. When absolutely necessary, protective glazing should be installed in an independent frame between ⅝” (16mm) and 1” (25mm) from the leaded glass.
Protective glazing is also warranted when employed historically on a particular window as original plating (Tiffany Studios, for example, often used plate glass to keep dirt and moisture out of their multi-plated windows). As a general rule, protective layers should not be added on historic buildings unless the glass setting was designed for storm glazing. Protective glazing, especially when improperly installed, may hasten deterioration of stained glass windows.
Potential benefits of protective glazing are that it can shield windows from wind pressure; increase energy savings; protect against environmental pollutants and UV light; provide vandalism and security protection, and reduce window maintenance. Historic stained glass windows, laylights and domes should be documented to help ensure the best-quality restoration in the event of vandalism, fire or other loss. Stained and leaded glass should always be well protected whenever chemical cleaners are used on the exterior of the building; some products, such as hydrofluoric-acid cleaners, will cause irreversible damage.
Glazing and sealants (e.g., putties, caulks) are used to seal the leaded panel against the sash, and to seal any open joints around the window frame. (Hardening agents should not be included in the mixture; solvent-based driers should be used sparingly.) The waterproofing allows leaded glass in a vertical position (e.g., in windows) to be used as a weatherproof barrier. Occasionally, leaded glass was designed or fabricated with inadequate bracing; this results in bulging or bowing panels; leaded panels should generally not exceed 14 linear feet (4.25 m) around the perimeter without support.
Painted glass, typically associated with pictorial scenes and figures found in church windows, often presents serious preservation challenges. When set in operable doors or windows, leaded glass can crack or weaken from excessive force, vibration, and eventually even from normal use. Names and inscriptions in or on windows can indicate ethnic heritage, particularly in churches or civic structures where windows often reflect styles and themes from the congregation or community’s origins.
However, stained glass styles of the late 19th century continued to appear in ecclesiastical buildings after they passed from general fashion. The history of the building can provide ready clues to the history of its leaded windows, doors, and other elements.
A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light, sound, and air. Modern windows are usually glazed or covered in some other transparent or translucent material, a sash set in a frame in the opening; the sash and frame are also referred to as a window. Many glazed windows may be opened, to allow ventilation, or closed, to exclude inclement weather. Windows often have a latch or similar mechanism to lock the window shut or to hold it open by various amounts.
Types include the eyebrow window, fixed windows, single-hung and double-hung sash windows, horizontal sliding sash windows, casement windows, awning windows, hopper windows, tilt and slide windows (often door-sized), tilt and turn windows, transom windows, sidelight windows, jalousie or louvered windows, clerestory windows, skylights, roof windows, roof lanterns, bay windows, oriel windows, thermal, or Diocletian, windows, picture windows, emergency exit windows, stained glass windows, French windows, panel windows, and double – and triple paned windows.
The Romans were the first known to use glass for windows, a technology likely first produced in Roman Egypt, in Alexandria ca. 100 AD. Paper windows were economical and widely used in ancient China, Korea and Japan. In England, glass became common in the windows of ordinary homes only in the early 17th century whereas windows made up of panes of flattened animal horn were used as early as the 14th century. In the 19th century American west, greased paper windows came to be used by itinerant groups. Modern-style floor-to-ceiling windows became possible only after the industrial plate glass making processes were fully perfected.